What is a project?
A project is a finalized set of activities and actions undertaken in order to meet a defined need within a specified time and within the allocated budget. Unlike operations, which are repetitive processes, the essence of a project is to be innovative and unique.

A project is a temporary action with a beginning and an end, which mobilizes identified resources (human, material, equipment, raw materials, informational and financial) during realization, which has a cost and is therefore subject of budgeting means and of an independent assessment from the company’s one.
The project’s expected results are called “livrables”.

What is project management ?
Project management is an approach aiming to structure, ensure and optimize the smooth running of a sufficiently complex project to have to :

  • Be planned through time
  • Be budgeted (preliminary study of the costs and benefits or consideration of the expected revenue, funding sources, study of operational and financial risks and of the various impacts, etc.)
  • Understand and manage the risks
  • Achieving the desired level of quality
  • Involve many stakeholders: this is the subject of organizations that identify control and project owner
  • Name a project manager (unit projects) or a project director (group of projects)
  • Establish a steering committee
  • Follow significant operational and financial issues

The goal must be clearly specified, quantified and dated. The result must be conform to quality  standards and predefined performances, at lower cost and in the shortest time.

The Franco-French sounding terms one must absolutely know:

  • La maîtrise d’ouvrage (MOA) - project owner - is the function responsible of the definition of features, of end-to-end testing and of acceptance of technical development.
  • L’assistance à la maîtrise d’ouvrage (AMOA) - Assistance to the project owner -  is the function that participates in these activities under the responsibility of the MOA.
  • La maîtrise d’œuvre (MOE) – project management - is the function responsible for the technical realization of a project, according to the functional specifications provided by the MOA.
  • L’assistance à la maîtrise d’œuvre (AMOE) - Assistance in project management - is the function which participates to the technical realization of a project, according to the functional specifications provided by the MOA.

Specifically, the MOA is the functional expert or a manager of the organization department that will manage the project on behalf of the business. The AMOA will be a junior consultant or a member of the organization department who will participate in the drafting of the functional specifications and conduct tests. The MOE will be the IT project manager and the AMOE will be the technical analyst or the developer.

Towards a standardization of project management
The performance of a project manager (risk control and quality of deliverables) is in function 1/ of his experience and 2/ his ability to benefit from the experiences of the other project managers.

Project management professionals have long understood the benefits of methods standardization. From there were born repositories such as HERMES, PRINCE2, PMBOK, etc. which provide guidelines and professionals said tools since the 70’s.

What has changed in recent years is the fact of being certified in project management and being able to sell better, either as a consultant or as an employee.

Is the certification itself a guarantee of seriousness?
No certification can qualify your ability to carry out a project : a mismanaged project lasts 3 to 5 times longer than the initial estimates while a project wellmanaged lasts…
Only twice longer than the initial estimates.

Schéma normalisation de la gestion de projet

No certification will ever qualify your charisma, that is to say, your interpersonal skills : a technically well led project (that is to say where all the steps and documents expected were made) may fail simply because of the personality of the project manager.

No certification will ever eliminate the conception mistakes related to ignorance of the business :

However, if managing a project is first of all a good dose of pragmatism combined with real interpersonal skills, nothing will ever replace the knowledge of your customer’s business.

We describe the main repositories and existing certifications in the following chart.

Acronym Handbuch des Elektronischen Rechenzentren des Bundes, Methode für die Entwicklung von Systemen IPMA Competences Baseline Project Management Body Environments PRoject IN Changing Environments

Swiss Confederation - 1975

IPMA - 1965 PMI - 1969 Simpact Systems Ltd -
1975 Office of Government for
Commerce (OGC) - UK - 1989

Computer Strategy Unit ( USIC )
Swiss Confederation

International Project Management Association (IPMA) - Suisse Project Management Institute (PMI) - USA

Public domain model Certifications and
associated managed by ATM Group Ltd - UK

Overhaul 1986 / 1995 1985 / 1999 / 2006 1987 / 1996 / 2000 / 2004 1975 / 1989 / 1998 / 2001

Normative project Management Methodology

Repository in
project management skills & high model of evaluation of these skills
Does not offer standards or methodological references
 for project management

- The PMBOK identifies the best project management practices, meaning five process groups and nine areas of expertise
- The PMBOK also identifies stakeholders.
- The PMBOK finally defines three types of deliverables related to project management, to quality assurance and to the product (meaning the project’s aim)

the business case that determines the scope and the limits of the project (its existence and its  validity
are checked in the IP process Initialize a project)
- PRINCE2 identifies eight processes and eight components that support the so-called processes.

Areas - Administration
- Information and communication technology
Is not devoted to a particular area

- Is not attached to a particular business domain, but the PMI made extensions of the PMBOK 2000 version for the construction, the Government and the defense
- In practice, the PMBOK is mainly used by business services (IT, Banks, etc.)

- Information and
communication technology
- Methodology
however open to all fields


Anyone interested in project management

Experienced professionals in project management

- Organizations wishing to implement a project management repository
- People in charge of project management
- People in charge
of project management
Area - Administration
- Information and communication
Is not devoted to a particular area - Is not attached to a particular business domain, but the PMI made extensions of the PMBOK 2000 version for the construction, the
Government and the defense
- In practice, the PMBOK is mainly used by business services (IT, Banks, etc.)
- Information and communication technology
- Methodology however open to all fields
Cetifications - HSPTP : HERMES
Swiss Project Team Professional
- HSPM : HERMES Swiss Project
Manager Certifications are valid for 6 years
- IPMA-A: Certified Project Director
- IPMA-B: Certified Senior Project Manager
- IPMA-C: Certified Project Manager
- IPMA-D: Certified Project Manager
Associate The A to C certifications are valid years
PMP: Project Management Professional
- CAPM: Certified Associate in Project Management
The PMP certification must be kept up to date
demonstrating a certain level of project
management activity
- PRINCE2 Practitioner
- PRINCE2 Fundation
Models - The model is divided into four
elements : who (role definition), what
(definition of the expected results),
how (step definition) & planning
- The model is divided into five submodels: project
management, risk management, quality
assurance, configuration
management & project marketing
- The realization of the project is divided
into six steps which results are
systematically documented to able
the decision-making (go next, redo, stop)
A project manager must have 46
"elements" of skills split between three
"areas of expertise"
- Technical skills for project management
- Behavioral Competencies of a
person involved in the project
- Skills related to the context in which the
project fits (project / program / portfolio)
- The five process groups which are more or less
sequential are:
♦ Starting
♦ Planning
♦ Execution
♦ Surveillance & Control
♦ Closure
Each process is described in terms of finality, of inputs
and outputs
- The nine areas of competences correspond to
the main areas of expertise in project management:
♦ Project Management Integration
♦ Content Management
♦ Management of time
♦ Cost Management
♦ Quality Management
♦ Human Resource Management
♦ Communications Management
♦ Risk management
♦ Management of supplies
Organizational Project Management Maturity
Model (OPM3) : evaluates the maturity of an
organization compared to PMBOK and articulated
around three axes (Knowledge, Assessment,
-The eight processes
describe in detail
the activities necessary for the
proper conduct of
the project:
♦ Directing a Project (DP)
♦ Developing a project (EP)
♦ Initialize a project (IP)
♦ Planning (FP)
♦ Manage the limits of
sequences (LS)
♦ Control a sequence (CS)
♦ Manage product delivery (LP))
♦ Project closure (CP)
- The eight support components:
♦ Business Case (updated
throughout the project)
♦ Plans (global plan and detailed plan)
♦ Controls (management by exception)
♦ Organization
♦ Risk management (analysis)
♦ quality (qualitative
customer expectations)
♦ Configuration
Management (as versioning and associated documentation) -
Control of change (change
in scope)
Editions - System development (2003)
- System adaptation (2005)
- Method development and
deployment (TBD)
IPMA skills baseline A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2 (The Stationary Office)
Languages French, English, German, Italian English The PMBOK is available in French, English, German,
Italian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, etc.
The methodology is available in 15 languages although the supports
are mostly written in English
Site formation
Update 11/07/2008 11/07/2008 11/07/2008 11/07/2008